St. Sebastián por El Greco ( II ) de Bucarest a New York

La Versión I de San Sebastián de El Greco (en Palencia) está en un excelente estado de conservación, ha permanecido siempre en su ubicación actual, y es un magnífico testimonio de la forma de trabajar de Theotokópoulos.

En cambio, la Versión II ha sido mutilada, se desconoce su procedencia original, ha tenido varios propietarios y ubicaciones, no podemos saber cuál era su aspecto original, y hay muy poca documentación disponible sobre el mismo.

Título: ” San Sebastián ”
Fecha: 1600 ca.
Medio: Óleo sobre tela.
Dimensiones: 0,89 x 0,68 cm.
Localización: Wildenstein Gallery, New York ??

Con toda probabilidad, debió tener originariamente un formato rectangular, y en algún momento fue recortado en sus cuatro costados, dándole su actual forma ovalada. Recordemos que El Greco solamente realizó obras de formato oval o circular para el Hospital de la Caridad de Illescas, debido a su inusual ubicación en la bóveda del Santuario.

Por tanto, es muy posible que originariamente este lienzo tuviera una forma parecida al San Sebastián Versión III (Museo del Prado) que podemos contemplar actualmente después de haber unido sus dos partes, hasta hace poco separadas.

En esta versión, vemos que Sebastián tiene seis flechas clavadas. Desconocemos si habían más flechas clavadas en las piernas, probablemente recortadas de la versión original. Cabe recordar que en la versión de Palencia, Sebastián solamente tiene una flecha clavada. Sin embargo, al igual que en la versión anterior, el rostro del mártir no revela ningún sufrimiento, sino que parece contemplar una visión sobrenatural.

Harold E. Wethey, quien no accedió personalmente a esta pintura, opina que su calidad, según aparece en las fotografías, es superior a la versión de El Prado. El Profesor Ellis Waterhouse, quien estudió la pintura en 1937, cree que es auténtica, pero que perdió las veladuras a causa de las limpiezas excesivas.

Es posible que este lienzo fuera a parar al Museo de la Trinidad, procedente de la Desamortización de Mendizábal, y que fuera expoliado de este Museo por el Conde de Quinto.

Es interesante leer las impresiones Le Corbusier, quien viajó por Rumania entre el 16 y el 22 de Junio de 1911, quien comenta cuatro cuadros de El Greco, entre ellos este San Sebastián, que considera (equivocadamente o no) como perteneciente a la colección particular de Carmen Sylva (Elisabetta di Wied) En todo caso, lo considera perteneciente a la Casa Real Rumana.

No podemos asegurar el periplo de esta obra, pero parece ser que a partir de cierto punto es paralelo a otra obra de El Greco: el Retrato de Giacomo Bosio (también conocido como Retrato del Dr. Francisco de Pisa).

En efecto, después de la 2ª Guerra Mundial, y con el consiguiente cambio de Régimen, algunas importantes obras de El Greco permanecieron en Rumanía, al ser consideradas patrimonio del Estado.

Por el contrario, este San Sebastián y el Retrato de Giacomo Bosio salieron de Rumanía en la década de 1940, considerando que ambos cuadros habían pertenecido a la colección de la Familia Real Rumana durante más de un siglo y nunca habían sido de la propiedad del Estado.

En 1982, ambas pinturas se exhibieron en el Museo del Prado en Madrid, ocasión que aprovechó el Gobierno Comunista de Rumanía para reclamarlas, pero los dos cuadros salieron otra vez rápidamente fuera de España.

El Retrato de Giacomo Bosio había sido vendido en 1977 al Museo de arte Kimball en Fort Worth, Texas. El San Sebastián, presumiblemente, permanece en el inventario de Wildenstein, los marchantes de arte de Nueva York.

El recorrido que ha tenido el Retrato de Giacomo Bosio está documentado. Considerando el probable paralelismo entre la suerte de este retrato y la del San Sebastián Tipo II, es muy verosímil que esta obra haya seguido este camino:

Procedencia:
* Museo de la Trinidad, procedente de las Desamortizaciones.  ??
* Javier de Quinto, conde de Quinto [1810-1860], Madrid y París. ??
* Su viuda, la condesa de Quinto. ??
* Su venta, Hôtel Drouot, París, 16-17 abril de 1869. ??
* Comprado por 430 francos por Félix Bamberg [b. 1820], Messina, 1869 ??
Isaac Pereire, París, 1863. ??

* adquirido por el rey Carol I de Rumania [1839-1914], Pelesh castillo, Sinaia, Rumania, probablemente en 1879;

* por descendencia a su sobrino, Rey Ferdinand [1865-1927], Pelesh castillo, Sinaia, Rumania;

* por descendencia a sus herederos;

* Wildenstein & Co.,Suiza, Nueva York.

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Bibliografía:

Frati, Tiziana; La Obra pictórica completa de El Greco; Editorial Noguer-Rizzoli; Milán-1969.
Wethey, Harold E.; El Greco y su Escuela; Ediciones Guadarrama; Madrid-1967.
Álvarez Lopera, José; El Greco, la Obra esencial; Editorial Sílex; Madrid-2014.

Webgrafía:

https://www.abc.es/cultura/arte/abci-trama-politico-y-cunado-director-prado-201604030634_noticia.html.

https://it.wikipedia.org/wiki/Elisabetta_di_Wied

https://revistas.unal.edu.co/index.php/bitacora/article/view/18712

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St. Sebastian by El Greco ( I ) Palencia Cathedral

Saint Sebastian by El Greco – I – (Palencia)

Location: Palencia, Museum of the Cathedral.
Painted: 1577 ca.
Medium: Oil on canvas.
Dimensions: 191 x 152 cm.
Signed: DOMÉNIKOS THEOTOKÓPOULOS EPOIEI (In Greek alphabet capitals)

According to the Legenda Aurea by Jacobus de Voragine, Sebastian was a soldier of the late third-century Roman Praetorian Guard. Although the emperor Diocletian was persecuting Christians, Sebastian encouraged his companions to die rather than apostatize, and that was what he himself did when he was asked to abandon his faith.

Sebastian was bound naked to a tree and shot with arrows. Because of that way in which he was executed, his martyrdom offered artists the opportunity to portray the male nude in religious art and to experiment with the aesthetic possibilities of that subject.

Several paintings of that subject were listed in the Inventories which were made after the death of Doménikos: one small and one large San Sebastian are mentioned in the Inventory-I, while in the Inventory-II two small and two large pictures of that theme were listed, which is rather surprising, taking into account that only three pictures on that subject remain currently.

That canvas has only been slightly restored and never repainted, and it has always remained in the Cathedral –except for temporary exhibitions-. Thus, it is in an excellent state of conservation, and is a very important testimony of the way of painting of El Greco.

There are several theories about its provenance. Certainly, its commissioner and its donor to the Palencia Cathedral are not universally accepted:

 * Probably, the commissioner was Luis de Castilla, illegitimate son of Diego de Castilla, dean of Toledo Cathedral. Before becoming dean`in Toledo in 1551, Diego de Castilla had been a priest, canon and archdeacon in Palencia Cathedral.

Luis de Castilla certainly knew Doménikos in Rome and presumably he was instrumental in the move of that painter to Spain. Luis was responsible for the first great commission of El Greco in Toledo -the altarpieces in Santo Domingo el Antiguo-, since he recommended that painter to his father. Possibly, Luis de Castilla was the donor of the St.Sebastian to the Palencia Cathedral, because he was grateful for the efforts of this Institution in order to obtain his dispensation “ob defectu natalium“, as he was an illegitimate son.

* On the other hand, Jesús San Martin Payo has suggested Bishop Zapata de Cardenas or his protégé, Alonso de Cordoba, as the donor of the canvas. Jesús San Martin Payo based on his study of a sixteenth century manuscript by Dr. Ascencio Garcia on the history of the diocese of Palencia. He thinks that that St. Sebastian was formerly owned by Don Juan Alonso de Córdoba the “right arm of the bishop don Juan Ramírez Zapata de Cárdenas, patron of the San Jerónimo chapel”. As Juan Ramírez was Bishop of the Palencia diocese from 1570 until his death in 1577, this theory would indicate that that Saint Sebastian would actually antecede “El Expolio” in the Toledo Cathedral.

 * However, in the inventories of the Palencia Cathedral, that picture is later mentioned in the Chapel of Saint Jerómimo, belonging to the Reinoso family, which has suggested the possibility that Francisco de Reinoso, secretary to Pope Pius V, commissioned that canvas.

Even though the first theory is the most plausible, the matter of the identification of the commissioner and the donor remains currently conjectural.

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That painting is the first life-size male nude depicted by El Greco, and seems to derive from two main sources of his stage in Rome: Michelangelo and the sculpture of Laocoön in the Vatican.

Certainly, the influence of Michelangelo is obvious throughout the first phase of Doménikos in Spain. Probably, his statement that Michelangelo did not know how to paint simply means that El Greco thought that color was more important than design when it comes to painting.

Certainly, the pose of of Sebastian seems to be inspired either by the Adam in the Sixtine Chapel, by the Punishment of Haman – also in the Sixtine Chapel – , or by the Sculpture of the Victory in the Palazzo Vecchio in Florence.

On the other hand, that Saint Sebastian seems to derive from the sculpture of Laocoön in the Vatican. Certainly, that classical statue haunted El Greco as much as Michelangelo –El Greco painted his own Laocoön in his later stage-. Although the pose is reversed and the left leg is bent back in a kneeling position, in other aspects it is very similar to that sculpture.

Presumably, Doménikos carefully studied that classical statue in Rome, as the right foot of the martyr has his toes pressing hard against the ground, which seems to indicate a close study of the Laocoön itself, and not merely a study of one reduction or a print of it. Even the handsome face of the young Sebastian reminds of the middle-aged bearded Laocoön.

On the other hand, his signature is on the stone under the left knee of the Saint, who hangs from bonds which tie his elbows to a fig-tree. Both characteristics remind of the treatment of that subject by Titian in the Averoldi Altarpiece.

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That canvas, painted in Italian Manieristic style, shows Sebastian crouched in a kneeling posture, and bound to a fig-tree by a rope that passes around his right and especially around his raised left arm.

The signature of El Greco is on the stone under the left knee of Sebastian. It is written in wonderful Greek alphabet capitals, in a splendid state of conservation. As usual in El Greco, that canvas is not dated, but it may be presumed that 1577 is the date ante quem.

RSCN5921 - copia (2)

Sebastian is stuck on his left side with only an arrow. El Greco was an artist hardly prone to morbid or bloody details; therefore it is not strange that there are more arrows stuck in the tree than in the body of the martyr, and that almost no blood oozes from his wound.

His eyes are cast heavenward, and he seems to be either resigned to his death, in communion with God, or perhaps enjoying his martyrdom. His nude body is graceful and naturalistic, slightly elongated, solidly fleshy, and has none of the exaggeration in contrasting highlights or pigmentation for which El Greco would later be known.

In the background, a rather tempestuous cloud is depicted with swift brushstrokes. The trees in the backdrop are the most naturalistic ever painted by Doménikos, and it can be clearly seen that a fig-tree is the specific kind of  tree on which Sebastian is bound.

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Bibliography:
Frati, Tiziana; La Obra pictórica completa de El Greco; Editorial Noguer-Rizzoli; Milán-1969.
Wethey, Harold E.; El Greco y su Escuela; Ediciones Guadarrama; Madrid-1967.
Álvarez Lopera, José; El Greco, la Obra esencial; Editorial Sílex; Madrid-2014.

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Un “Greco” en Martín Muñoz de las Posadas

Martín Muñoz de las Posadas es un agradable pueblo de la Provincia de Segovia, en el antiguo Camino Real entre Madrid y Valladolid. Debe su nombre a un noble burgalés a quien fue adjudicado este asentamiento por su participación en la Reconquista de Toledo, a finales del s. XI. Siendo parada importante entre Madrid y Valladolid, existían casas destinadas al alojamiento (Posadas)

Su interesante Iglesia parroquial de Nuestra Señora de la Asunción atesora uno de los tres (o cuatro) únicos cuadros de El Greco actualmente existentes en Castilla-León. Se trata de “El Calvario” o “Cristo crucificado, con la Virgen, un Donante y San Juan Evangelista“.

 Título:Cristo crucificado, con la Virgen, un Donante y San Juan Evangelista”  o  “El Calvario
Fecha: 1590 ca.
Medio: Óleo sobre tela.
Dimensiones: 174 x 111 cm.
Localización: Iglesia Parroquial de Martín Muñoz de las Posadas.

Andrés Núñez de Madrid, párroco de Santo Tomé de Toledo, donó esta obra a la iglesia de Navalperal del Campo (término municipal de Montuenga, Segovia) en 1601 o 1603. El cuadro posiblemente le pertenecía como muestra de agradecimiento por parte de El Greco, ya que Andrés Núñez habría intervenido en favor suyo en el momento del pago del “Entierro del Señor de Orgaz“, donde Andrés Núñez tal vez seria el oficiante vestido con la capa pluvial, o bien el personaje en el extremo izquierdo, detrás del fraile franciscano.

Hay dos hipótesis sobre el traslado de esta obra desde Navalperal hasta Martín Muñoz de la Posadas. Según una hipótesis, fue trasladada de esta localidad a su ubicación actual en 1834, debido a la desamortización. Otra teoría sostiene que ya estaba en su sitio actual a mediados del s. XVII debido a la crisis de este siglo y al consiguiente despoblamiento de Navalperal.

Harold E. Wethey, considera esta obra como una “Crucifixion Type IV” dentro del corpus pictórico de El Greco, pero es bastante escéptico sobre su valor, ya que cree que es una copia antigua de un original perdido. Sin embargo, Camón Aznar, San Román y Mayer la consideran una obra auténtica de Doménikos, si bien con repintes y diversas restauraciones.

Ciertamente, es una obra poco conocida y valorada dentro de el corpus de El Greco, pero personalmente pienso que es necesaria su vindicación, por su innegable belleza, por la escasez de “Crucifixiones” de este tipo en su corpus pictórico, y por el retrato del donante, que tan interesante papel jugó en la vida de Doménikos.

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Bibliografía:
Frati, Tiziana; La Obra pictórica completa de El Greco; Editorial Noguer-Rizzoli; Milán-1969.
Wethey, Harold E.; El Greco y su Escuela; Ediciones Guadarrama; Madrid-1967.
Martín Muñoz de las Posadas; Prodestur Segovia; Diputación de Segovia.
Webgrafía:
http://www.elnortedecastilla.es/segovia/201502/20/miguel-sobrados-martin-munoz-20150220154627.html

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Copy of “The Burial of the Count of Orgaz” at El Prado.

The “Burial of the Count of Orgaz” at the Museo del Prado

Títle: ” The Burial of the Count of Orgaz ”
Date: 1625 ca.
Technique and Support: Oil on Canvas.
Dimensions: 188 x 248 cm.
Location: Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Several replicas of various masterpieces of El Greco have survived so far, which are regarded either as a work of Doménikos himself, or painted by Jorge Manuel, or by the workshop with more or less intervention of the master.

For instance, Camón Aznar mentioned in his catalogue 110 copies on the subject of St. Francis of Assisi. According to Harold E. Wethey, only 24 of those copies were painted by El Greco himself, whereas the rest would have been made by his workshop.

However, not any replica -contemporary to El Greco– of the “Burial of the Count of Orgaz” has remained so far. As a matter of fact, it is understandable that only few people were interested in that unusual subject, a mere local legend.

Even though two “Burial of the Count of Orgaz” were quoted in the second inventory made after the death of the master, one of them was a “borroncito” (a sketch), and it seems very unlikely that the other picture was the one nowadays at the Museo del Prado.

Certainly, El Prado Museum houses a very interesting replica of the “Burial”, which is thought to be painted some years after the death of Doménikos. That copy represents the lower part of the original at Santo Tomé, although adapting it to a smaller format and roughly maintaining its compositional proportionality.

That painting was quoted by Antonio Palomino in the “Casa Profesa de los Jesuitas” (Toledo) in 1724. Due to its quality, it was firstly ascribed to El Greco, until Cossio rejected that attribution in his catalogue of 1908, pointing the name of Jorge Manuel as a possible author.

Currently, it is considered a late copy, painted by a single artist who imitated quite faithfully the images and the appearance of the original, but not the pictorial layers and glazes used by El Greco, by Jorge Manuel, or by the more direct collaborators of the master.

In any case, that skilled painter probably had been previously working at the studio of Doménikos, since he knew several pictorial resources that were used there. Certainly, he used heavily charged brushstrokes in zones such as the flames of the candles, the chasubles and the ruff-necks, whereas the processional cross was painted using small brushstrokes. Also, he scumbled and dragged the pigments in other areas such as the habit of the Franciscan, whereas  one head in the second row was depicted in a rather impressionist technique corresponding to the final stage of El Greco.

There are some changes at the little part representing the Heaven. The clouds are slightly higher than in the original canvas, while the three groups of cherubs have been eliminated. A small foreshortened angel has been moved towards the base of the clouds, in order to introduce that figure into that painting.

Moreover, a more interesting change has been made in the Terrestrial part. The cleric on the right, behind the main celebrant of the ceremony, has been curiously transformed.

Certainly, in the painting at Santo Tomé that cleric was a young man, with dark hair, moustache and goatee. However, in the copy at the Prado, he appears as an elder with a gray beard and hair.

Perhaps that cleric was responsible for the making of that painting. And maybe -if he really was the same individual- he was allowed to be included in that copy, reflecting the years that passed since he was portrayed for the first time in the glorious masterpiece at Santo Tomé Church.

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Bibliography:
El Greco en el Museo Nacional del Prado. Catálogo Razonado, Museo Nacional del Prado, 2007, pp. 238-241).
Wethey, Harold E.; El Greco y su Escuela; Ediciones Guadarrama; Madrid-1967.

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The Holy Family by El Greco (Type-IV-b)

The Holy Family with St. Anne and the Infant John Baptist

Title:The Holy Family with St. Anne and the Infant John Baptist
Date: 1580-85 ca.
Medium: Oil on Canvas.
Dimensions: 178 x 105 cm.
Location: Museo de la Santa Cruz (Toledo)

“The Holy Family with St. Anne and the Infant John Baptist” (Type-IV-b) at the Museo de la Santa Cruz is thought to have been painted earlier than the picture at El Prado Museum.

Certainly, the picture at El Prado Museum (Type-IV-a) is essentially a variation of that previous canvas. However, there are some important changes, especially with the figure of St. Joseph.

He is depicted as a middle-aged man in the background, behind the left shoulder of the Virgin, but he is not staring at the Mother and Child. Instead, he is looking at the front, and his face is so realistic that it could be said that it is a real portrait.

Certainly, St. Joseph appears as though he was not concerned with the scene. As a matter of fact, there is every indication that El Greco himself had concealed that figure as if he was dissatisfied with it. As a result, that painting became “ The Virgin with the Child Jesus, the Infant St. John and St. Anne”.

In the 4th centenary of El Greco, the entire canvas was not in good condition, and needed a restoration. Consequently, the image of St. Joseph remained hidden until this last restoration was carried out. As a result, that painting became again a “Holy Family with the Infant St. John and St. Anne”, and showed again all its splendid colors and beautiful forms, together with the figure of St. Joseph.

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There is (or there was) a replica of that painting, at the Wadsworth Athenaeum, Hartford, Connecticut, USA. (Oil on canvas; 90 x 80 cm.). Unfortunately, it was in bad condition. Because in the last restoration had its lower edge cut off, only the upper part of the Infant St. John was visible.

Its authenticity was beyond doubt, but there is not further information about that picture.

 

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Bibliography:
Frati, Tiziana; La Obra pictórica completa de El Greco; Editorial Noguer-Rizzoli; Milán-1969.
Wethey, Harold E.; El Greco y su Escuela; Ediciones Guadarrama; Madrid-1967.

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The Holy Family by El Greco (Type-IV-a)

The Holy Family with St. Anne and the Infant John the Baptist.

Title: ” The Holy Family with St. Anne and the Infant John Baptist ”
Date: 1590 ca.
Technique and Support: Oil on Canvas.
Dimensions: 107 x 69 cm.
Location: Museo del Prado, Madrid.

Type IV of the Holy Family by El Greco is more complex than the previous Types, since five characters are depicted, giving greater richness of interpretation to that Type. The personages are restricted in a narrow space, in front of one of the usual tempestuous skies so much to the liking of that painter.

That episode with the infant John the Baptist and St. Anne is not described in the Canonical Gospels, what seems to have not bothered the Counter-Reformation Church.
The Child Jesus is depicted naked, and He seems to return His gaze to the Virgin, unlike the previous versions.

The Virgin Mary centres that composition. She is self-absorbed, covered with a blue mantle. She places her right arm over St. Anne, and she holds the Child Jesus in her lap with both hands. That pose, which is usually known as the pietà, is mostly used to show the Virgin holding the body of Christ after His crucifixion. Possibly, that complex symbolism predicts the eventual death and resurrection of Christ.

St. Anne is represented covered with a white veil and a brown mantle. She is leaning towards the Child, and she prepares to wrap Him with a white linen.

Theotokópoulos depicted St. Joseph as a middle-aged, vigorous man, who observes the scene, discretely emerging behind the left shoulder of the Virgin. He wears a green vest over a white shirt, a kind of clothing typical for a Spanish carpenter at the end of the 16th century, which fits well with the popular idea of that Saint at that time.

On the right foreground, the Infant St. John Baptist is represented somewhat detached from the other characters, directing his gaze to a vague distant point. El Greco depicted him in a rather small scale compared with the rest of the figures. He is painted naked, although the conventional camel skin is hinted behind him. He carries a glass bowl filled with fruits, and takes his left index to his lips, as though he was asking for silence.

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There is a smaller, but high quality variation of the picture mentioned above, unanimously regarded as a work of El Greco.

Title: ” The Holy Family with St. Anne and the Infant John Baptist ”
Date: 1590 ca ca.
Technique and Support: Oil on Canvas.
Dimensions:  52 x 33 cm.
Location: National Gallery of Art, Washington.

In that painting, Domenikos varies the figure of St. Joseph, making him older than in the previous version.Certainly, the age of St. Joseph at the time of his marriage to the Virgin is not mentioned in the canonical Gospels, and there was a debate in the Spanish Church of Counter Reformation about that subject. Perhaps El Greco in those paintings reflected that debate.

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Bibliography:
Frati, Tiziana; La Obra pictórica completa de El Greco; Editorial Noguer-Rizzoli; Milán-1969.
Wethey, Harold E.; El Greco y su Escuela; Ediciones Guadarrama; Madrid-1967.

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The Holy Family by El Greco (Type-III)

The Holy Family with Mary Magdalene -Type-III-

Title: ” The Holy Family with Mary Magdalene ”
Date: 1590-95 ca.
Technique and Support: Oil on Canvas.
Dimensions: 130 x 100  cm. (unframed).
Location: The Cleveland Museum of Art (USA).

Whereas Type-II is basically a reinterpretation of Type-I, this another Type of the Holy Family by El Greco is quite different, since in it a new feeling is present. Certainly, while Type-I and Type-II give a sensation of joy, that painting conveys a feeling of sorrow, despite its sparkling lights, brilliant colors, and the lovely image of the Infant Christ.

Obviously, that picture may not be confused with a variation of the Virgin of the Good Milk, as it might appear in Types I and II.

The Child Jesus is represented elder than in those previous versions. He does not have that blunt, unattractive appearance. Instead, He is beautiful, likable, frolicsome, and quite different from His image in those Types.

While in Type-II El Greco depicted St. Anne, in that canvas Mary Magdalene is represented. Her mournful gaze foreshadows the future suffering of the Infant Christ. That episode with Mary Magdalene is not mentioned in the canonical Gospels. Perhaps it is described in an apocryphal Gospel, or it is coming from a pious tradition, which seems not to have upset the authorities of the Counter-Reformation Church.

The countenance of the Virgin Mary in not as beautiful as in the preceding Types and her thoughtful, faraway look seems to indicate awareness of the fate of her Son. She holds the Child on her lap, as if she was as mediator between Christ and the viewer.

St. Joseph offers a bowl of fruit to the Infant Jesus, full of symbolic meaning: Apples represent the fall of man; cherries, the blood of Christ; peaches, salvation; pears, the sweetness of His virtue.

As in previous Types, that painting is based on previous Venetian depictions of that subject. There are some touches of realism in the faces of the Virgin and the Child Jesus, in the bowl of fruit, and in the familiarity of the scene, which endows that image with certain accessibility and congeniality.

However, Doménikos, rather than representing the concrete reality of these characters, gives to them a visionary quality, an intense spirituality. They are depicted with the usual elongated forms so much to the liking of El Greco in that period. They seem to exist out of time and space, as if they were floating in an imprecise setting, in front of a stormy cloudscape.

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Harold E. Wethey mentioned two copies of that painting:
* One copy had been in the Royal Palace in Bucharest, and nowadays is said to belong to a private collection (Oil on canvas; 84 x 70 cm.).  According to Wethey, it is a mediocre workshop piece, but according to Cossio, Mayer and Camón Aznar, it would be authentic.
* Another copy with several variations is (or it was) in a private collection in Montreal. Wethey assigns it to Jorge Manuel, while Mayer and Camón Aznar consider it an authentic work of El Greco.

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Bibliography:
Frati, Tiziana; La Obra pictórica completa de El Greco; Editorial Noguer-Rizzoli; Milán-1969.
Wethey, Harold E.; El Greco y su Escuela; Ediciones Guadarrama; Madrid-1967.
Álvarez Lopera, José; El Greco, la Obra esencial; Editorial Sílex; Madrid-2014.

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